Northwest Evaluation Association

Introduction to the  Learning Continuum

 

 

Purpose of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum began as a cooperative partnership with one of NWEA’s member districts, Allentown, Pennsylvania. Its development is an example of how a spark of an idea can become a tool that benefits teachers across the country.

 

For years, teachers using NWEA’s Achievement Level Tests or Measures of Academic Progress have been getting valid and useful data on their students. But, they have also continually asked us the same question, “How do I actually put this information to use in my classroom?” In response to this need, and driven by our commitment to improve the learning experience for all children, we developed the NWEA Learning Continuum, which is but one answer to this question.

 

The purpose of this document is to help guide instruction based on reports from an Achievement Level Test or computerized Measure of Academic Progress. The Learning Continuum enhances a teacher’s ability to provide targeted instruction for individual students or groups of students. It is not intended to be a replacement for district curriculum or standards that are already in place.

 

Development and Organization of the Learning Continuum

We developed the continuum by looking at curriculum from an analytical point of view. NWEA researched each and every test item in our item banks (over 15,000 items) in mathematics, reading, and language usage. We used only the items that had successfully passed field testing and were available for use on tests. As we reviewed each item, we looked at the difficulty of the items, the skills and concepts being assessed, and any new vocabulary or symbols that were introduced. By doing this, a learning continuum of these skills and concepts began to unfold. Thus, this document was born.

 

The Learning Continuum contains separate sections for each subject (mathematics, reading, and language usage). Within each subject are the main goal strands commonly found in standards and curriculum documents. The goal strands are then broken down into ten-point RIT bands. Within each band, sub-categories, which further divide the content within the goal area, break down the skills and concepts found in the NWEA item banks. Skills that cross several RIT bands appear at the earliest RIT band where they are prominently seen, and these skills are not repeated in the following RIT bands. Therefore, it is important to not only focus on the RIT band where the student is functioning, but to watch for any holes that may have appeared earlier in the continuum.

 

Only skills and concepts showing up in the NWEA item banks are listed in this document. We realize that many districts have additional topic areas that will not show up here. We encourage them to use the Learning Continuum as a tool to supplement the documents already in use by a district.

 

Primary Use of the Learning Continuum

Given a student’s (RIT) achievement score (e.g. a mathematics RIT score of 187), teachers identify the portion of the Learning Continuum (e.g. mathematics RIT scores between 181-190) that represents the child’s instructional level. The skills and concepts listed at RIT ranges below that should be ones the student knows and has mastered.

 

A teacher uses the student’s overall RIT score as the starting place, then finds the appropriate RIT band within each goal area. As the teacher works on specific goals, he/she can use the Learning Continuum as a guide to watch for differences in students’ achievement levels.

 

These RIT bands can be helpful in preparing for flexible small group instruction within a classroom. By putting students together who have similar instructional needs, a teacher can better meet the needs of all students. Our goal is to create maximum growth for all students, whether they are in the lowest quartile or the highest quartile. As students master the skills and concepts within a RIT band, they can be shifted to another flexible group.

 

Educators should be aware of the achievement differences of students. For too long, school districts have used a student’s age (grade level) as the primary criterion for selecting instructional materials and lessons. We believe that a student’s current achievement level should be the dominant consideration when grouping for instruction, selecting materials, and providing instruction. The Learning Continuum will help teachers know when it is time to move a student, or students, beyond the conventional curriculum at a particular grade level and when it is time to develop skills that may have been presented in earlier grades.

 

In creating the Learning Continuum, we have attempted to create one continuous document representing skills and concepts as they progress in difficulty. Their order is not based on any one district’s “curriculum.” One important note about the mathematics portion of the Learning Continuum is that all skills and concepts are listed together in one document, regardless of the “typical” grade level we see them introduced. Therefore, elementary, middle school, and upper courses such as algebra and geometry content are included together. There is a natural progression that can be followed from one RIT band to the next. We challenge you to “think outside the box” in using this document.

 

If a student’s RIT score is borderline between two RIT bands, use the lower one first. Based on a student’s performance, teachers can do further assessments to determine where the student is and should be.

 

Other Uses of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum will have many uses, and we urge districts in the NWEA community to explore these uses and report back to us on their experiences. Some possible uses of the continuum are:

 

 

Future of the Learning Continuum

The Learning Continuum began as a collaborative effort among NWEA members and will now evolve as a result of the efforts and contributions of all who use it. This first edition is only the beginning of what promises to be a substantial contribution to the future of education. As always, NWEA client members will be called upon to share their ideas, insights, and the products of their work so that all NWEA members can benefit from an improved product and expanded services related to the Learning Continuum.

 

We have enclosed a fax-back form to gather your initial reactions to the Learning Continuum. We are eager to hear from you and urge you to share with us so that all educational agencies within the NWEA community, and the children they serve, may benefit from your experiences.

 


Goal Score Translation Charts

 

This chart is useful in translating the Hi, Av, and Lo goal scores from the NWEA class report. It is built from the 2002 Achievement Level Test norms with the traditional breakdown of Lo equal to percentile scores < 33, the Hi equal to percentile scores > 66, and Av equal to percentile scores between 33 and 66.

 

To use, find the student’s grade on the chart below and then find the descriptor for the goal that you are referencing. Use the student’s overall RIT score as another guide. Refer to the Learning Continuum for detailed skills and concepts that should be further assessed and instructed. There is a chart for each subject. Seasons are broken down within the charts.

 

Mathematics

 

Fall

Winter

Spring

Grade Level

Lo

Av

Hi

Lo

Av

Hi

Lo

Av

Hi

2

< 173

173 – 182

> 182

< 178

178 – 188

> 188

< 183

183 – 193

> 193

3

< 185

185 – 196

> 196

< 190

190 – 200

> 200

< 195

195 – 205

> 205

4

< 196

196 – 206

> 206

< 200

200 – 210

> 210

< 203

203 – 214

> 214

5

< 204

204 – 215

> 215

< 207

207 – 219

> 219

< 210

210 – 223

> 223

6

< 209

209 – 222

> 222

< 212

212 – 225

> 225

< 215

215 – 229

> 229

7

< 214

214 – 228

> 228

< 217

217 – 232

> 232

< 220

220 – 236

> 236

8

< 220

220 – 235

> 235

< 223

223 – 239

> 239

< 226

226 – 243

> 243

9

< 223

223 – 238

> 238

< 230

230 – 244

> 244

< 236

236 – 250

> 250

10

< 226

226 – 241

> 241

< 236

236 – 248

> 248

< 245

245 – 255

> 255

 

Reading

 

Fall

Winter

Spring

Grade Level

Lo

Av

Hi

Lo

Av

Hi

Lo

Av

Hi

2

< 170

170 – 186

> 186

< 176

176 – 191

> 191

< 181

181 – 195

> 195

3

< 183

183 – 197

> 197

< 188

188 – 201

> 201

< 192

192 – 205

> 205

4

< 194

194 – 206

> 206

< 197

 197 – 209

> 209

< 200

200 – 212

> 212

5

< 201

201 – 213

> 213

< 203

203 – 215

> 215

< 206

206 – 218

> 218

6

< 206

206 – 218

> 218

< 208

 208 – 220

> 220

< 211

211 – 222

> 222

7

< 210

210 – 222

> 222

< 212

212 – 224

> 224

< 214

214 – 226

> 226

8

< 214

214 – 226

> 226

< 216

216 – 228

> 228

< 219

219 – 230

> 230

9

< 217

217 – 228

> 228

< 218

218 – 230

> 230

< 220

220 – 231

> 231

10

< 219

219 – 231

> 231

< 220

220 – 231

> 231

< 220

220 – 232

> 232

 

 

Math Goal 1: Computation

– includes addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and rounding of whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percents, and positive and negative numbers.

 

RIT scores lower than 150

Whole Numbers

·         Understand the concept of subtraction using symbols; subtract two numbers in vertical format

New Vocabulary in this range: and

New Signs and Symbols: +, =, -

 

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Whole Numbers

·         Understand the concept of multiplication using symbols; recall multiplication facts with one factor as 1,2,3,4,5 and other factor 0-9

New Vocabulary in this range: equals, facts

New Signs and Symbols: x (multiplication symbol)

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Whole Numbers

Decimals

New Vocabulary in this range: none

New Signs and Symbols: $, decimal point

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Decimals

New Vocabulary in this range: closest, how many

New Signs and Symbols: division symbol (both forms)

 

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Whole Numbers

·         Identify the division facts related to a multiplication fact with one factor as            1,2,3,4,5 and the other factor 0-9

·         Use strategies to develop computational fluency with multiplication: “zero property,” “property of one,” “arrays,” doubles,” “nine patterns”

Fractions

Decimals

·         Add decimals to hundredths place using both horizontal and vertical format (not the same number of digits)

New Vocabulary in this range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Decimals

·         Compute basic operations with monetary amounts up to and including $20.00

·         Round decimals to the nearest whole number

·         Add decimals to thousandths, vertically and horizontally, with and without regrouping

Percents

New Vocabulary in this range: difference, not true, power of 10, rounded, thousands

New Signs and Symbols: ¢, %

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Whole Numbers

·         Divide a 2-digit number by a 2-digit number with a remainder

Fractions

Decimals

Percents

New Vocabulary in this range: estimate, round, closest to, sum, of (used as in “½ of 36”)

New Signs and Symbols: square root symbol

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Decimals

·         Round decimals to nearest whole number, tenth, or hundredth

·         Write a terminating decimal as a fraction or mixed number

Integers

·         Identify the greater or lesser of 2 integers

·         Multiply integers with unlike signs

New Vocabulary in this range: smallest, tenth

New Signs and Symbols: - as a negative, + as a positive

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Whole Numbers

Fractions

·         Add and subtract fractions with like denominators; change improper fractions to mixed numbers

Decimals

·         Relate fractions to decimals

·         Write a number sentence to solve one-step word problems involving the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication of fractions and decimals

Integers

Percent

·         Write a ratio (fraction) as a percent and percent as a ratio (fraction: denominators are factors of 100)

New Vocabulary in this range: product, divide, most, if – then, compute, lowest terms

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Decimals

Integers

·         Add integers with unlike signs

Percents

·         Find the percent one number is of another (8 is what % of 20?)

New Vocabulary in this range: ‘Solve for n”

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Fractions

Integers

New Vocabulary in this range: decimal fractions, opposite

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Integers

New Vocabulary in this range: sum of opposites

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Fractions

Percents

New Vocabulary in this range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores above 270

Fractions

New Vocabulary in this range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 2: Number Sense and Numeration

– includes solving problems with ratios, proportions, fraction-decimal relationships, exponents, number theory, place value, and the relationship between numbers.

 

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

New Vocabulary in this Range: how many

New Signs and Symbols: for answer

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Whole Numbers

·         Identify missing numbers in a series through 100

Fractions

Place Value

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

New Vocabulary in this Range: ones, tens, hundreds, thousands, numeral, ordinal numbers through eleventh, counting

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Whole Numbers

Fractions

·         Identify one-half of an object or set

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

New Vocabulary in this Range: even numbers, same as, fewest

New Signs and Symbols: < and > signs, = sign

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Whole Numbers

Fractions

Decimals

·         Identify the greater or lesser of two decimals

·         Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

·         Identify and understand the place value and value of each digit in numbers through the hundred thousands

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

New Vocabulary in this Range: first, second, third, etc., odd, one-fourth, one-half, reduce, fractions, order, divisible, round, smallest, largest, lowest terms, greatest common factor, least common multiple, closest, units, set, digit, greater than, greatest

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Whole Numbers

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

·         Solve proportions using the cross product method

Decimals

Percents

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

·         Add whole numbers using place value

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

·         Identify and understand the greater or lesser of two numerals (use the symbols < and > through 999,999)

Exponents

New Vocabulary in this Range: thirds, fourths, rounded, thousands, exponential form, mixed number, improper fraction, lowest common denominator, percent, expanded form, prime, factor, proportion

New Signs and Symbols: use of dot as a multiplication symbol

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Whole Numbers

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Decimals

Percents

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

·         Write the word name for a decimal and vice versa

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

·         Order numbers from least to greatest and greatest to least

·         Order decimals and fractions to the hundred thousandths

Exponents and Scientific Notation

New Vocabulary in this Range: missing number, pentagon, simplest fraction, biggest, hundredths, one less, decimal numeral, squared, divisible, inequality, expanded numeral, equivalent, point, standard numeral, sequence

New Signs and Symbols: + used as positive symbol, - used as negative symbol

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Whole Numbers

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Decimals

·         Round monetary amounts to the nearest single coin or bill which could be used to pay for a purchase up to and including $20.00

Percents

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Exponents and Scientific Notation

New Vocabulary in this Range: counting number, portion, fractional part, lowest terms, reciprocal, order, scientific notation, prime factorization, not prime, factor tree, common multiples, greatest common denominator, equivalent, nearest dollar

New Signs and Symbols: square root symbol

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

·         Identify the least common denominator for 3 or more fractions: list the multiples or prime factorization

Decimals

Percents

Integers

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Ordering, Equalities and Inequalities

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Square Roots

New Vocabulary in this Range: always true, proportion, multiply, between, tens digit, standard numeral, ratio

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Fractions, Ratio and Proportion

Decimals

Place Value, Expanded and Standard Notation

Exponents and Scientific Notation

·         Evaluate expressions using the order of operations that include exponents

·         Find products by applying rules for exponents

Square Roots

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Square Roots

New Vocabulary in this Range: Base ten, prime factors

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Exponents and Scientific Notation

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Percents

Square Roots

Irrational Numbers

New Vocabulary in this Range: infinite non-repeating decimal

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Exponents and Scientific Notation

Set Notation

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 3: Geometry

– includes properties of two- and three-dimensional objects, points, rays, lines, and angles including congruency, similarities, and transformations

 

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Congruency and Similarity

New Vocabulary in this Range: shape, circle, same as

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

·         Identify and name solid figures: can (cylinder) and cone

Congruency and Similarity

New Vocabulary in this Range: matches, triangle, square, corners, cone, closed, inside

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Congruency and Similarity

Symmetry and Transformations

New Vocabulary in this Range: congruent, figure

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Congruency and Similarity

Symmetry and Transformations

Line Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: symmetry, point, sides, rectangle, cube, straight, line segment, shortest

New Signs and Symbols: line AB (with double arrow over AB), line segment AB (with segment line over AB)

 

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

Symmetry and Transformations

Geometric Properties and Terminology

·         Identify position concepts: (over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle, bottom)

New Vocabulary in this Range: symmetrical, parallel, intersecting, diagonal, pair, angle, cylinder, outside, inside, sphere, faces, corresponding, point, intersect, outside, axis of symmetry, line segment, pentagon

New Signs and Symbols: symbol for parallel lines

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

·         Identify, name, and analyze solid figures:  cube, cylinder, triangular pyramid and square pyramid (faces, edges, and vertices)

Symmetry and Transformations

Congruency and Similarity

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: intersection, quadrilaterals, octagon, parallelogram, pyramid, isosceles, right angle, diameter, right angle, geometric, perpendicular, plane

New Signs and Symbols: D for triangle, angle symbol

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

·         Contrast open and closed figures

·         Identify polygons:  triangle, quadrilateral, pentagon, hexagon, and octagon

·         Identify quadrilaterals:  square, rectangle, parallelogram, trapezoid, rhombus

·         Analyze solid figures:  triangular pyramid and rectangular pyramid (faces, edges, and vertices)

Congruency and Similarity

·         Identify similar figures (same shape, may or may not be the same size)

Symmetry and Transformations

Geometric Properties and Terminology

·         Identify angles:  right, obtuse, and acute

·         Identify when two intersecting lines are perpendicular

New Vocabulary in this Range: symmetrical, perpendicular, ray, vertex, rotation, triangular prism, corresponding parts, supplementary, acute angle, transformation

New Signs and Symbols: @ - congruent symbol, « - double arrow symbol for similarity, p - pi symbol, DABC - to label triangle

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Shapes and Figures, 2- and 3-dimensional

·         Analyze solid figures:  rectangular prism, triangular prism, triangular pyramid, square, pyramid (faces, edges and vertices)

Congruency and Similarity

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: radius, polygon, circumference, trapezoid, rectangular box, equilateral, similar, obtuse angle, straight angle, slide

New Signs and Symbols: angle symbol, label for line – L1

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Symmetry and Transformations

·         Understand meaning and representation of a dilation

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: transformation, hypotenuse, edge, isosceles, scalene triangle, similar trapezoids, alternate interior angles, sum of angles in triangle

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Congruency and Similarity

·         Construct congruent segments and angles

Symmetry and Transformations

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: symmetrical halves, diameter, radius, angle bisector, tangent, corresponding parts of congruent triangles, Pythagorean theorem, corresponding angles, complementary angles, construction

New Signs and Symbols: sign for parallel lines

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Congruency and Similarity

·         Solve problems involving properties of similar triangles

Symmetry and Transformations

·         Solve problems involving rotations (turns) and reflections (flips)

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: slope, non-vertical and non-horizontal, midpoint, endpoint, rotational symmetry, reflected, perpendicular bisector, similar triangles, similar trapezoids, similar cylinders, conditional, counterexample, conclusion of in-then statement, interior of angle, exterior angle of regular polygon, interior angle of regular polygon, sum of angles in triangle equals 180 degrees, congruent angles, adjacent angles, vertical angles

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: postulate

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Congruency and Similarity

·         Prove that triangles and other polygons are congruent or similar using algebraic, coordinate, and deductive proofs

Geometric Properties and Terminology

New Vocabulary in this Range: HL

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 281 and 290

Symmetry and Transformations

·         Solve problems involving volume with rotational transformation

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 4: Measurement

– includes customary and metric units of measure around time, money, size, temperature, and weight, and the use of them in both calculating and estimating measurements.

 

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Length, Weight, Volume

Time, Temperature

·         Choose the appropriate tool:  clock to measure time, calendar to measure days and months, thermometer to measure temperature, ruler to measure length

New Vocabulary in this Range: longest, shortest, how tall, kilometer, meter, time

New Signs and Symbols: C for Celsius, cm for centimeter

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Time, Temperature

Money

New Vocabulary in this Range: how long, names of days of week, next, names of months, pennies, centimeter, inches

New Signs and Symbols: degree symbol, : for time – 1:00, face of quarter, dime, penny, and nickel

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Length, Weight, Volume

·         Estimate and measure the length of an object to the nearest metric and customary measure using a picture of a ruler

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Time, Temperature

·         Compute simple conversions among units of time:  seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, years

Money

·         Determine if a collection of coins is enough to purchase an object up to and including $1.00

New Vocabulary in this Range: line segment, area, square units, perimeter, days, week, set, coins, thermometer, temperature, pounds, ounces, pints, quarts

New Signs and Symbols: $, decimal point for cents, F = Fahrenheit, lb = pounds, sq = square units, cent sign, recognize back of penny, nickel, dime, and quarter

 

RIT scores between 181 and 190

Length, Weight, Volume

·         Measure length to the nearest inch, foot, and yard and do appropriate conversions between these units

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Time, Temperature

Money

·         Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

·         Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to $10.00

New Vocabulary in this Range: about, length, estimate, perimeter, change, quarter, dollars, dozen, units, feet, yard, grams, meters, cups, gallons, nickel, pennies, dime, tablespoon, hours, minutes, degree

New Signs and Symbols: m = meters, g = grams

 

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Length, Weight, Volume

·         Perform conversions between linear units in the customary system; also as necessary in addition or subtraction problems

·         Perform conversions between units of capacity in the customary system; also as necessary in addition or subtraction problems

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Time, Temperature

·         Identify time relationships:  minutes in an hour, hours in a day, days in a week, weeks in a year

Money

·         Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $10.00

·         Compute simple addition or subtraction problems involving monetary amounts up to $10.00

New Vocabulary in this Range: height, width, parallelogram, square, rectangle, triangle, year, ton, seconds, kilogram, distance, miles, liter

New Signs and Symbols: mm = millimeter, a.m. and p.m., hr = hours, min = minutes

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Length, Weight, Volume

·         Perform conversions between units of mass in the metric system; also as necessary in addition or subtraction problems

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

·         Solve practical word problems involving perimeter and area of a square, rectangle or triangle

Time, Temperature

Angle Identification and Measure

Money

New Vocabulary in this Range: right angle, circumference, minutes, decades, milligrams, gram, cubic feet, volume, liters, length, weight, kilometers, millimeters, mass

New Signs and Symbols: ft for feet, mL = milliliters, right angle symbol, symbol for line segment, p

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Length, Weight, Volume

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Angle Measure

Money

New Vocabulary in this Range: yards, measure of angle, degrees, protractor, centuries, below zero, Celsius, rectangular solid, rectangular prism, decades, ounces

New Signs and Symbols: ” = inches, yd = yards, b = base, h = height, r = radius, s = side, angle symbol, - for negative, + for positive, d = distance, tsp = teaspoon, pt = pint, gal = gallon, qt = quart, c = cup

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Length, Weight, Volume

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

New Vocabulary in this Range: reasonable, formula, segment BC, pi, radius squared, diameter, metric units, quarts, gallons, rectangular box, base, rate

New Signs and Symbols: oz = ounces, C = circumference

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Length, Weight, Volume

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Time, Temperature

Money

New Vocabulary in this Range: rectangular house, height and base, algebraic expression, rows and columns, checking account, car purchase, commission, simple interest

New Signs and Symbols: F = 9/5 C + 32, formula for finding volume of a pyramid

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

New Vocabulary in this Range: doubled and tripled, rectangular solid, cylindrical tank, algebra tiles, inscribed, time-and-a-half, sales tax, discount

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Length, Weight, Volume

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

Angle Identification and Measure

New Vocabulary in this Range: circumscribed, distance formula

New Signs and Symbols: formula for finding volume of a cone, formula for volume of a cube, formula for finding volume of a rectangular solid

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Length, Weight, Volume

Money

New Vocabulary in this Range: rate of interest, successive discounts

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 281 and 300

Area, Perimeter, Circumference

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 5: Statistics/Probability and Graphing

– Students determine the mathematical probability of events, calculate measures of central tendency, and work with combinations and permutations. Interpret and predict information from charts, graphs, and tables.

 

RIT scores between 151 and 160

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

Probability and Prediction

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: probability

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

Probability and Prediction

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: chance

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 181 and 190     

Probability

·         Predict whether common events are certain, likely, unlikely, possible, impossible, fair or unfair

·         Investigate experimental probability of an event using a coin or spinner

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: most often

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 191 and 200

Probability and Prediction

Statistics

Combinations and Permutations

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: average, bar graph, percentage

New Signs and Symbols: %

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Probability and Prediction

Statistics

Graphing

·         Solve problems using information from a picture graph (symbol may represent more than one)

New Vocabulary in this Range: least often, how many ways, ordered pairs, coordinates, distance formula

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: dice, arranged, highest mean

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Probability and Prediction

Statistics

Combinations and Permutations

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: even numbers, mean, median, integer, intersection, table, frequency, origin, quadrant

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Statistics

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: vertex, fractional part, amount of sales, translation, matrix, possibility, mean salary, coordinates of points

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Probability and Prediction

Combinations and Permutations

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: coordinate, Venn diagram, greatest decrease, endpoints, midpoint

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Probability and Prediction

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 300

Combinations and Permutations

Graphing

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 6: Algebraic Concepts

– includes patterns, functions, solving equations, order of operations, properties, simplifying expressions and continues up through more difficult skills in Algebra specific content

 

RIT score between 151 and 160

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: for answer to equation

 

RIT score between 161 and 170

Solving Equations, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

·         Solve for missing numbers in an addition or subtraction sentence

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: ( ) used in equations

 

RIT score between 171 and 180

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Properties

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: <, > symbols

 

RIT score between 181 and 190

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

·         Choose and apply an appropriate problem solving strategy: Find a pattern

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Properties

Ordered Pairs

New Vocabulary in this Range: sign

New Signs and Symbols: - used as negative

 

RIT score between 191 and 200

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: if-then, product, sum

New Signs and Symbols: variables, exponents

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Properties

New Vocabulary in this Range: input, output, table, associative, equation

New Signs and Symbols: £, ³

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

·         Solve decimal equations (one step, addition and subtraction)

·         Solve integer equations (one step, multiplication and division)

·         Evaluate expressions using the order of operations (may include parentheses or exponents)

New Vocabulary in this Range: commutative, solve, square numbers, input, output, number sequence

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: absolute value, evaluate, quotient

New Signs and Symbols: square root symbol, %, absolute value symbol

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: inequality, if-then statement, term in sequence, square numbers, negative coefficient

New Signs and Symbols: I = p x r x t

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: regression equation, varies inversely as the square, slope of parallel lines, solution to system, factor (used with equations)

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Quadratic Formula and Equations

Trigonometry

New Vocabulary in this Range: parabola, intercepts, number of solutions, simultaneous equations, counterexample, solution set, sin A, cosine, tangent, discriminant, imaginary solutions, difference of two squares, read solution set from graph, factor completely

New Signs and Symbols:none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

Patterns, Sequences, Functions

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

Trigonometry

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 271 and 280

Solving Equations and Inequalities, Simplifying Expressions, Order of Operations

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Math Goal 7: Problem Solving

– includes a variety of strategies such as guess and check, logical reasoning, and working backwards to solve simple and multi-step problems in all mathematical areas.

 

Important Note: Many test versions do not have problem solving broken out as a separate goal, but have it embedded it into the other goal areas as an integrated piece.

 

RIT scores between 161 and 170

New Vocabulary in this Range: how many, not, in all, altogether

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 171 and 180

·         Identify position concepts: over, under, inside, outside, in front, behind, top, middle, bottom

·         Combine and identify the value of a collection of coins and bills up to and including $1.00

New Vocabulary in this Range: product, number sentence, problem, how many more, multiples, greater than, left, how much, money, answer, about, outside, inside, shape, calendar, picture

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 181 and 190

New Vocabulary in this Range: add, subtract, multiply, divide, rate, kilometers, hours, between, equals, cost, time, less than, closest to, equation, weigh, minutes, pieces, dozen, cups, inches, pounds, miles, sum, dime, nickel, pennies, quarter

New Signs and Symbols: +, $, decimal point for cents, ¢

 

RIT scores between 191 and 200

New Vocabulary in this Range: terms, meter, millimeters, kilogram, feet, yards, unit of measurement, height, thousands, hundreds, tens, table, graph, length, width, rectangular, area, square inches, exactly, coins, numeral, even, change, average, opposite, percent, subtrahend, addend, formula, circle, diameter, operation, total, fact, fraction, surfaces, cube, temperature, first – fifth (ordinal names), difference, equivalent

New Signs and Symbols: tally marks, =, - as an integer sign, %, °C, for answer

 

RIT scores between 201 and 210

New Vocabulary in this Range: equation, product, increased, number line, information not needed, division, estimate, odd, prime, cube, pattern, geometric patterns, extra information

New Signs and Symbols: r x t = d

 

RIT scores between 211 and 220

New Vocabulary in this Range: decimals, fractions, what shape, hour, minutes, gallons, average, probability, graph, squares

New Signs and Symbols: %

 

RIT scores between 221 and 230

New Vocabulary in this Range: mortality, odometer, magic square, deducted, less than twice, addends, less than sum, rectangle, diameter, radius, label (units), area, perimeter

New Signs and Symbols: I = prt

 

RIT scores between 231 and 240

New Vocabulary in this Range: regression equation

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 241 and 250

New Vocabulary in this Range: matrix

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 251 and 260

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 261 and 270

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

RIT scores between 271 and 280

New Vocabulary in this Range: none

New Signs and Symbols: none

 

Reading Goal 1: Word Analysis and Vocabulary Development

– Students understand relationships between words and can use component structures and clues from context to decipher word meaning.

 

RIT Scores below 150

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

New Vocabulary: picture, word, ending sound, match, find

 

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: missing word, prefix, choose, sentence

 

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Multiple Meanings

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: compound word, opposite, poem, rhyme, root or base word, vowel, letter, story

 

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Multiple Meanings

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: homonym, synonym, underlined, suffix, incomplete, paragraph, passage

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: nonsense, antonym, directions, definition

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: similar to, alphabetical order, syllable

 

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Multiple Meanings

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

Word Components

New Vocabulary: advertisement, magazine, article, recipe

 

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Contextual Meaning and Vocabulary

Antonyms, Homonyms, Synonyms

New Vocabulary: label, selections, introduction

 

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and extended thinking.

 

Reading Goal 2: Literal Reading Comprehension

– Students can recall, identify, classify, and sequence details, facts, and stated main ideas from a variety of written materials, and can interpret directions.

 

RIT Scores between 151 and 160    

Sequencing

Reading for Detail

New Vocabulary: last, after, story

 

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

New Vocabulary: after, book, first, directions, sentences, poem, index, table of contents, sign, passage

 

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

New Vocabulary: before, second, paragraph, following, letter, label, note, article, list

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

·                                 Given factual paragraph, compare information (how are they alike?)

New Vocabulary: recipe, instructions, order of events, information, describe, ad, bibliography, editor, character

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

New Vocabulary: literature, advertising, schedule, statement, announcement, biography, entries, chapter, introduction, comparison, glossary

 

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

·         Contrast information (how are they different?) when given a factual paragraph

·         Locate appropriate information to compare or contrast in longer passages with unfamiliar content

New Vocabulary: indicated, series of events, chronological order, definition, dictionary, sequence, description, catalog, journal, report


RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

·         Locate multiple pieces of information to compare or contrast

New Vocabulary: guide, handbook, selections

 

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Reading Directions

Sequencing

Locating Information

Reading for Detail

Cause and Effect

New Vocabulary: publications, editorial

 


RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Reading Directions

Reading for Detail

New Vocabulary: none

 

Reading Goal 3: Interpretive Reading Comprehension

– Students can make reasonable predictions before, during, and after reading, can draw inferences necessary for understanding, can recognize cause-effect relationships, and can summarize and synthesize information from a variety of written materials.

 

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Inference

·         Use simple details to make simple inferences

Main Idea

·         Determine the main idea of a simple factual section

Cause-effect

·         Identify or determine simple cause and effect relationships

New Vocabulary: missing word, story, paragraph, sentence

 

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Inference

·         Infer the qualities or purposes of a list

Main Idea

Cause-effect

Prediction

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: questions, main idea, riddle, list, passage

 

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Inference

·         Make inferences by noting specific details in multi-paragraph selection

·         Infer the qualities or purposes of a list

·         Make inferences using details in an advertisement

·         Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters

·         Infer answers to riddles by noting details

Main Idea

Prediction

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: title, caused, facts, effect, opinion, ad, describes, author

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Main Idea

Cause-effect

Prediction

Summarize

Application Transfer

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: predict, outcome, statement, poem, article, conclude, summary, problem

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Main Idea

·         Infer main idea from textbook page

·         Infer main idea of article from newspaper or magazine

·         Infer main idea from a variety of genre

Compare-contrast

Cause-effect

Summarize

Application Transfer

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: summarize, conclusion, cause and effect, central idea, compare, selection, introduction

 

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Inference

·         Make inferences from announcements

·         Make inferences about directions on labels

·         Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature

·         Make inferences from information found on book flap

·         Make inferences from textbook technical reading

Main Idea

Prediction

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: infer, solution, prediction, announcement, biography, explanation, chapter, legend, topics, characteristics, main characters, assume, library, speaker

 

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Inference

Main Idea

Prediction

Summarize

Application Transfer

Drawing Conclusion

New Vocabulary: implied, inferred, premise, impression, contrast

 

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and extended thinking.

 

Reading Goal 4: Evaluative Reading Comprehension

– Students understand fact, opinion, bias, assumptions, and elements of persuasion, and can evaluate the quality and validity of written material. Students can compare works, evaluate conclusions, and apply what is learned to real life experiences.

 

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length, complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

 

RIT Scores below 150

Classify, Thinking Skills

New Vocabulary: none

 

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Classify, Thinking Skills

New Vocabulary: thing

 

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Classify, Thinking Skills

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: sentence, page, missing word, belongs

 

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

Classify, Thinking Skills

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: story, paragraph, bias, passage, writer

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190    

Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

Classify, Thinking Skills

Evaluate Validity

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: classified as, describe, idea, list, ad, make-believe, advertisement, definition, label, facts

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

Classify, Thinking Skills

Evaluate Validity

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: opinion, conclusion, valid, appeal, descriptions, detail, accuracy, attitude, phrase

 

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Inference

Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

At upper range of RIT –

Classify, Thinking Skills

Evaluate Validity

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: comments, persuasion, technique, editorial

 

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Inference

·         Evaluate relative importance of information

 Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

Classify, Thinking Skills

Evaluate Validity

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: evaluate, assumption, logical argument, factual, unbiased, propaganda

 

RIT Scores between 221 and 230

Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype

Classify, Thinking Skills

Evaluate Validity

Fact and Opinion

New Vocabulary: observation, contradict

 

RIT Scores between 231 and 240

Persuasive Elements

Bias, Assumptions, Stereotype (Only three items in this range)

Evaluate Validity

New Vocabulary: analyze, stereotype

 

Reading Goal 5: Literary Response and Analysis

– Students respond to stories based on well-know characters, themes, plots, and settings

 

The main difference in items at higher RIT levels is in sentence and passage length, complexity of detail and content, and difficulty of vocabulary

 

RIT Scores between 151 and 160

Literary

·         Infer the setting of a simple story by noting details that tell time or place

New Vocabulary: story

 

RIT Scores between 161 and 170

Literary

·         Determine the author’s purpose for simple forms of writing

·         Determine the mood or tone of a simple passage

·         Identify the problem in a story

·         Determine how a problem was solved

Inference

·         Infer actions, characteristics, emotions, or qualities of characters

New Vocabulary: passage, sentence, problem, sign, list, poem, fairy tale

 

RIT Scores between 171 and 180

Literary

Inference

·         Infer characteristics and qualities of main characters

Problem Resolution

Compare-contrast

New Vocabulary: describe, missing word, paragraph, author’s purpose, ad, letter, fable, report

 

RIT Scores between 181 and 190

Literary

Inference

·         Make inferences from a variety of personal narratives

·         Make inferences from a fable

·         Make inferences about characters in a variety of literature

·         Infer who is the narrator

·         Make inferences from poetry

·         Make inferences from riddles

Problem Resolution

Compare-contrast

New Vocabulary: theme, action, setting, predict, author, solve, purpose, make-believe, mood, point of view, tone, moral, character, legend, fantasy, diary, note

 

RIT Scores between 191 and 200

Literary

Inference

·         Make inferences from personal narratives within the context of the story

·         Make inferences about directionality

·         Make inferences about characters from a variety of literature

·         Infer who is narrator by the descriptors of the story

·         Make inferences from different types of poetry

New Vocabulary: fiction, subject, event, conflict, appeal, narrator, main point, main character, detail, solution, short story, folktale

 

RIT Scores between 201 and 210

Literary

Inference

·         Make inferences about a character type within a variety of literature

Problem Resolution

New Vocabulary: application, opinion, plot, exaggeration, speaker, science fiction, personal narrative, autobiography, historical fiction, non-fiction, mythology

 

RIT Scores between 211 and 220

Literary

Problem Resolution

New Vocabulary: intent, irony, suspense, simile, figure of speech, dialogue, metaphor

 

RIT Scores above 221

Items include same skills and content as above with more difficult vocabulary and extended thinking.

 

New Vocabulary: personification, alliteration, method of characterization, flashback, literary device, narration, exposition, memoir